6 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate regional calf muscle microcirculation in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) with and without foot ulcers, compared to healthy control people without DM, using contrast-free magnetic resonance imaging methods. Methods: Three groups of subjects were recruited: non-DM controls, DM, and DM with foot ulcers (DM + ulcer), all with ankle brachial index (ABI) > 0.9. Skeletal muscle blood flow (SMBF) and oxygen extraction fraction (SMOEF) in calf muscle were measured at rest and during a 5-min isometric ankle plantarflexion exercise. Subjects completed the Yale physical activity survey. Results: The exercise SMBF (ml/min/100 g) of the medial gastrocnemius muscle were progressively impaired: 63.7 ± 18.9 for controls, 42.9 ± 6.7 for DM, and 36.2 ± 6.2 for DM + ulcer, p < 0.001. Corresponding exercise SMOEF was the lowest in DM + ulcers (0.48 ± 0.09). Exercise SMBF in the soleus muscle was correlated moderately with the Yale physical activity survey (r = 0.39, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Contrast-free MR imaging identified progressively impaired regional microcirculation in medial gastrocnemius muscles of people with DM with and without foot ulcers. Exercise SMBF in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was the most sensitive index and was associated with HbA1c. Lower exercise SMBF in the soleus muscle was associated with lower Yale score.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDiabetes and Vascular Disease Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2021


  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • diabetes mellitus
  • microcirculation
  • peripheral arterial disease
  • skeletal muscle


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