Design and numerical simulations of W-diamond transmission target for distributed x-ray sources

Praneeth Kandlakunta, Allan Thomas, Yuewen Tan, Rao Khan, Tiezhi Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Distributed x-ray sources enable novel designs of x-ray imaging systems. However, the x-ray power of such sources is limited by the focal spot power density of the fixed anode. To further improve x-ray output, we have designed and evaluated a diamond-W transmission target for multi-pixel x-ray sources. The target features a thin layer of tungsten deposited on a diamond substrate. The thickness of tungsten layer was optimized for maximum fluence through Monte Carlo simulations. Finite element thermal simulations were performed to evaluate focal spot temperature in the target under different power loadings and dwell duration. The results showed that the optimal thickness of the tungsten layer in the W-diamond transmission target is linearly proportional to the electron energy. A 5-6 μm tungsten thickness is suitable for the kVps ranges from 60 kVp to 140 kVp. A W-diamond transmission target produces up to 20% more x-ray fluence than a traditional W reflection target in the beam center depending on the kVp settings. The x-ray spectrum of the transmission target shows less characteristic x-rays than that of reflection target. The thermal performance of W-diamond targets for peak power is significantly better than that of reflection targets. The maximum focal spot power densities of W-diamond transmission and W reflection targets are both strongly dependent on the dwell duration. For longer pulse durations, the W-diamond target allows as much as a four-fold increase in power and an eight-fold increase in power density in comparison to a traditional W reflection target for the same temperature spikes. The stability of the W-diamond bond needs to be tested experimentally. Nevertheless, the W-diamond transmission target is an appealing target that can significantly simplify the design and improve the performance of distributed x-ray sources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number025030
JournalBiomedical Physics and Engineering Express
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 24 2019


  • distributed x-ray source
  • novel x-ray imaging system
  • x-ray target material


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