Depressive symptomatology and smoking among persons with diabetes

Debra Haire‐Joshu, Susan Heady, Leela Thomas, Kenneth Schechtman, Edwin B. Fisher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to determine whether (a) symptoms of depression are more prevalent and severe among diabetic smokers than diabetic nonsmokers, (b) smoking is related to depressive symptomatology among diabetic patients, and (c) there is a positive relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and severity of depressive symptoms. Diabetic non‐smokers (n = 103) and diabetic smokers (n = 83) were surveyed regarding symptoms of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Depressive symptomatology was more prevalent and severe among smokers than nonsmokers. Smoking was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology. Among smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked per day was independently associated with cognitive symptoms of depression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)273-282
Number of pages10
JournalResearch in Nursing & Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1994


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