Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Metabolic failure is an integral component of the pathological aftermath of TBI. The oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is a valuable parameter for characterization and description of metabolic abnormalities; however, OEF measurement has required either invasive procedures or the use of ionizing radiation, which significantly limits its use in pediatric research. Results: Patients with TBI had depressed OEF levels that correlated with the severity of injury. In addition, the OEF measured within 2 weeks of injury was predictive of patient outcome at 3 mo after injury. In pediatric TBI patients, low OEFa marker of metabolic dysfunctioncorrelates with the severity of injury and outcome.Discussion:Our findings support previous literature on the role of metabolic dysfunction after TBI. Methods: Using a recently developed magnetic resonance (MR) technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation, we determined the whole-brain OEF in both pediatric TBI patients and in healthy controls. Injury and outcome were classified using pediatric versions of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E), respectively.