Objectives: The mechanism by which mitral valve (MV) disease leads to atrial fibrillation (AF) remains poorly understood. Delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI) has been used to assess left atrial (LA) fibrosis in patients with lone AF before catheter ablation; however, few studies have used DE-MRI to assess MV-induced LA fibrosis in patients with or without AF undergoing MV surgery. Methods: Between March 2018 and September 2022, 38 subjects were enrolled; 15 age-matched controls, 14 patients with lone mitral regurgitation (MR), and 9 patients with MR and AF (MR + AF). Indexed LA volume, total LA wall, and regional LA posterior wall (LAPW) enhancement were defined by the DE-MRI. One-way analysis of variance was performed. Results: LA volume and LA enhancement were associated (r = 0.451, P = .004). LA volume differed significantly between controls (37.1 ± 10.6 mL) and patients with lone MR (71.0 ± 35.9, P = .020 and controls and patients with MR + AF (99.3 ± 47.4, P < .001). The difference in LA enhancement was significant between MR + AF (16.7 ± 9.6%) versus controls (8.3 ± 3.9%, P = .006) and MR + AF versus lone MR (8.0 ± 4.8%, P = .004). Similarly, the was significantly more LAPW enhancement in the MR + AF (17.5 ± 8.7%) versus control (9.2 ± 5.1%, P = .011) and MR + AF versus lone MR (9.8 ± 6.0%, P = .020) Conclusions: Patients with MR + AF had significantly more total and LAPW fibrosis compared with both controls and lone MR. Volume and delayed enhancement were associated, but there was no difference between MR and MR + AF.
- atrial fibrillation
- atrial fibrosis
- delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging
- mitral regurgitation
- mitral valve disease