Defining the Microbiome Components (Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi) and Microbiome Geodiversity

Jennifer M. Leonard, Drew Del Toro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The recognition that a resident community of microbes contributes substantially to human health and disease is one of the emerging great discoveries in modern medicine. This collection of bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and eukaryotes are referred to as microbiota, which together with the individual tissues they inhabit is defined as our individual microbiome. Recent advances in modern DNA sequencing technologies permit the identification, description, and characterization of these microbial communities as well as their variations within and between individuals and groups. This complex understanding of the human microbiome is supported by a rapidly expanding field of inquiry and offers the potential to significantly impact the treatment of a wide variety of disease states. This review explores the recent findings associated with the various components of the human microbiome, and the geodiversity of microbial communities between different tissue types, individuals, and clinical conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-212
Number of pages5
JournalSurgical infections
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 1 2023


  • dysbiome
  • microbiome
  • surgery


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