Microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP-1) is a small molecular weight component of the fibrillin-rich microfibril. Gene-targeted inactivation of MAGP-1 reveals a complex phenotype that includes increased body weight and size due to excess body fat, an altered wound healing response in bone and skin, and a bleeding diathesis. Elastic tissues rich in MAGP-1-containing microfibrils develop normally and show normal function. The penetrance of MAGP-1-null phenotypes is highly variable and mouse strain-dependent, suggesting the influence of modifier genes. MAGP-1 was found to bind active transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and BMP-7 with high affinity, suggesting that it may be an important modulator of microfibril-mediated growth factor signaling. Many of the phenotypic traits observed in MAGP-1-deficient mice are consistent with loss of TGF-β function and are generally opposite those associated with mutations in fibrillin-1 that result in enhanced TGF-β signaling. Increased body size and fat deposition in MAGP-1-mutant animals are particularly intriguing given the localization of obesity traits in humans to the region on chromosome 1 containing the MAGP-1 gene.