A genetic factor model is introduced for decomposition of group differences of the means of phenotypic behavior as well as individual differences when the research variables under consideration are ordered categorical. The model employs the general Genetic Factor Model proposed by Neale and Cardon (Methodology for genetic studies of twins and families, 1992) and, more specifically, the extension proposed by Dolan et al. (Behav Genet 22: 319-335, 1992) which enables decomposition of group differences of the means associated with genetic and environmental factors. Using a latent response variable (LRV) formulation (Muthén and Asparouhov, Latent variable analysis with categorical outcomes: multiple-group and growth modeling in Mplus. Mplus web notes: No. 4, Version 5, 2002), proportional differences of response categories between groups are modeled within the genetic factor model in terms of the distributional differences of latent response variables assumed to underlie the observed ordered categorical variables. Use of the proposed model is illustrated using a measure of conservatism in the data collected from the Australian Twin Registry.
- Genetic factor model
- Latent response variable formulation
- Ordered categorical variables