Microglia are the major immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that perform numerous adaptive functions required for normal CNS development and homeostasis but are also linked to neurodegenerative and behavioral diseases. Microglia development and function are strongly influenced by brain environmental signals that are integrated at the level of transcriptional enhancers to drive specific programs of gene expression. Here, we describe a conceptual framework for how lineage-determining and signal-dependent transcription factors interact to select and regulate the ensembles of enhancers that determine microglia development and function. We then highlight recent findings that advance these concepts and conclude with a consideration of open questions that represent some of the major hurdles to be addressed in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102146
JournalCurrent Opinion in Genetics and Development
StatePublished - Feb 2024


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