P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is a homodimeric transmembrane mucin on leukocytes. During inflammation, reversible interactions of PSGL-1 with selectins mediate leukocyte rolling on vascular surfaces. The transmembrane domain of PSGL-1 is required for dimerization, and the cytoplasmic domain propagates signals that activate β2 integrins to slow rolling on integrin ligands. Leukocytes from knock-in "ΔCD" mice express a truncated PSGL-1 that lacks the cytoplasmic domain. Unexpectedly, they have 10-fold less PSGL-1 on their surfaces than WT leukocytes. Using glycosidases, proteases, Western blotting, confocal microscopy, cell-surface cross-linking, FRET, and pulse-chase metabolic labeling, we demonstrate that deleting the cytoplasmic domain impaired dimerization and delayed export of PSGL-1 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), markedly increasing a monomeric precursor in the ER and decreasing mature PSGL-1 on the cell surface. A monomeric full-length PSGL-1 made by substituting the transmembrane domain with that of CD43 exited the ER normally, revealing that dimerization was not required for ER export. Thus, the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains cooperate to promote dimerization of PSGL-1. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic domain provides a key signal to export precursors of PSGL-1 from the ER to the Golgi apparatus en route to the cell surface.