Arterial inflammation is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, and appropriate management of this inflammation represents a major unmet therapeutic need for cardiovascular disease patients. Here, we review the diverse contributions of immune cells to atherosclerosis, the mechanisms of immune cell activation in this context, and the cytokine circuits that underlie disease progression. We discuss the recent application of these insights in the form of immunotherapy to treat cardiovascular disease and highlight how studies on the cardiovascular co-morbidity that arises in autoimmunity might reveal additional roles for cytokines in atherosclerosis. Currently, data point to interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-17 as cytokines that, at least in some settings, are effective targets to reduce cardiovascular disease progression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)941-954
Number of pages14
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 16 2019


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