Background: Biomechanical analysis using cyclic testing for repaired flexor tendons is a clinically relevant method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile properties of two six-strand suture techniques, the triple looped suture and Yoshizu #1 suture techniques using cyclic testing under simulating early active mobilization conditions. Methods: Twenty-five flexor digitorum profundus tendons harvested from fresh frozen human cadaver hands were repaired in zone 2 utilizing one of three repair techniques: the 2-strand modified Kessler (MK) technique as a control, the triple looped suture (TLS) and Yoshizu #1 suture (Y1) techniques. In each suture technique, 4-0 monofilament nylon sutures were used for core sutures and 6-0 monofilament nylon sutures for circumferential running sutures. Cyclic testing was performed using 20 N with 600 cycles at 1 Hz. Results: Five out of eight specimens in the MK group ruptured during cyclic testing. Thus, this group was excluded from analysis. On the other hand, all tendons in the TLS and Y1 groups tolerated cyclic testing. Average gaps of the TLS and Y1 groups were 0.5 ± 0.8 mm and 1.9 ± 2.2 mm, respectively. All tendons in the TLS group and six out of nine tendons in the Y1 group formed gaps less than 2 mm. Two tendons in the Y1 group formed a gap of 3.8 and 6.6 mm had breakage of peripheral sutures at the first cycle. Mean ultimate tensile force of the TLS and Y1 group measured after cyclic tensing, were 66.2 ± 9.0 N and 65.9 ± 13.1 N, respectively. No statistical difference between the two groups was found in gap and ultimate tensile forces. Conclusions: This study suggested that the TLS and Y1 techniques have tensile properties to allow early active mobilization. None of tendons repaired with the TLS technique had gaps more than 2 mm.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Science
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Cyclic testing
  • Early active mobilization
  • Flexor tendon injury
  • Flexor tendon repair
  • Six-strand technique
  • Zone 2


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