CXCL17 is a novel mucosal chemokine that mediates myeloid cell recruitment and bactericidal activity and highly expressed in the respiratory tract. However, its role in tuberculosis (TB) immunopathogenesis or protection remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the function of CXCL17 in a mouse model of aerosol infection with the clinical W-Beijing lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis hypervirulent HN878 strain. Our results show that CXCL17 production increases in the lung of M. tuberculosis–infected mice during acute and chronic stages of infection. Moreover, in vitro M. tuberculosis infection of epithelial cells and myeloid cells induces production of CXCL17. In humans, lower serum CXCL17 levels are observed among active pulmonary TB patients when compared with subjects with latent TB infection and healthy controls, suggesting a protective role. However, mice treated with rCXCL17 show similar lung bacterial burden and inflammation compared with control animals, despite an increased lung myeloid cell accumulation. Finally, CXCL17–/– mice are not more susceptible to TB than wild-type animals. These findings suggest that CXCL17 is induced in both murine epithelial and myeloid cells upon M. tuberculosis infection and increased expression during human latent TB infection. However, CXCL17 may have a dispensable role during pulmonary TB. ImmunoHorizons, 2021, 5: 752–759.