Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a recently identified molecule involved in the amplification of inflammation. To determine the regulation of TREM-1, we studied TREM-1 expression and soluble TREM-1 plasma levels upon i.v. LPS challenge in healthy humans in vivo and in vitro. Granulocyte TREM-1 expression was high at baseline and immediately down-regulated upon LPS exposure along with an increase in soluble TREM-1. Monocytes displayed a gradual up-regulation of TREM-1 upon LPS in vivo and in vitro. In vitro studies extended these findings to highly purified lipoteichoic acid and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Non-bacterial TLR ligands such as polyinosine-polycytidylic acid and imidazoquinoline, as well as the TLR9 ligand CpG, did not impact TREM-1 expression. The LPS-induced alterations in TREM-1 surface expression were not a result of increased TNF-α or IL-10. Inhibitor studies disclosed a PI3K-dependent pathway in LPS-induced up-regulation of TREM-1 on monocytes, whereas MAPK played a limited role.