The treatment of renal and ureteral stones has undergone rapid and major changes over the past ten years. Extracorporeal Shockwave lithotripsy has become the most commonly used modality for the treatment of renal and upper ureteral stones. Lower ureteral stones are more commonly being approached by retrograde techniques. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy, medical therapy, and open surgical nephrolithotomy offer viable alternatives in given situations. Presented here is the current application of each of these techniques, both alone and in combination, for the treatment of urinary stones.
- Genitourinary system