Since the first patient underwent the Maze procedure on September 25, 1987, 346 patients have undergone this operation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. The procedure was designed as an open-heart operation performed through a median sternotomy. It underwent 2 major modifications relatively early in the series, evolving into the so-called Maze-III procedure, which has been used exclusively since April 16, 1992. Since that time, the Maze-III procedure has been adapted to allow it to be done by minimally invasive techniques. In addition, we recently performed the entire procedure in 2 patients without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. The operative mortality rate has remained at 2% to 3%. This includes patients undergoing concomitant high-risk cardiac surgical procedures and all re-do cases. The overall success rate in curing atrial fibrillation has been 99%. The procedure itself has been shown to cause no permanent damage to the sinus node. The left atrium has been documented to function long-term postoperatively in 93% of patients and the right atrium functions in 99% of patients. The Maze-III procedure remains the surgical procedure of choice for the treatment of medically refractory atrial fibrillation.