Current methods for hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate MRI human studies

Peder E.Z. Larson, Jenna M.L. Bernard, James A. Bankson, Nikolaj Bøgh, Robert A. Bok, Albert P. Chen, Charles H. Cunningham, Jeremy W. Gordon, Jan Bernd Hövener, Christoffer Laustsen, Dirk Mayer, Mary A. McLean, Franz Schilling, James B. Slater, Jean Luc Vanderheyden, Cornelius von Morze, Daniel B. Vigneron, Duan Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


MRI with hyperpolarized (HP) 13C agents, also known as HP 13C MRI, can measure processes such as localized metabolism that is altered in numerous cancers, liver, heart, kidney diseases, and more. It has been translated into human studies during the past 10 years, with recent rapid growth in studies largely based on increasing availability of HP agent preparation methods suitable for use in humans. This paper aims to capture the current successful practices for HP MRI human studies with [1-13C]pyruvate—by far the most commonly used agent, which sits at a key metabolic junction in glycolysis. The paper is divided into four major topic areas: (1) HP 13C-pyruvate preparation; (2) MRI system setup and calibrations; (3) data acquisition and image reconstruction; and (4) data analysis and quantification. In each area, we identified the key components for a successful study, summarized both published studies and current practices, and discuss evidence gaps, strengths, and limitations. This paper is the output of the “HP 13C MRI Consensus Group” as well as the ISMRM Hyperpolarized Media MR and Hyperpolarized Methods and Equipment study groups. It further aims to provide a comprehensive reference for future consensus, building as the field continues to advance human studies with this metabolic imaging modality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2204-2228
Number of pages25
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number6
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • carbon-13
  • dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization
  • hyperpolarized MRI
  • metabolic imaging
  • pyruvate


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