Cisplatin is a commonly used anticancer drug, but nephrotoxicity is a dose-limiting adverse effect. Recent experimental and clinical observations have demonstrated that multiple injections of cisplatin induce the transition to chronic kidney disease; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We found that multiple injections of higher doses of cisplatin in a shorter interval affected the severity of kidney injury, causing kidney fibrosis to develop at a later time point. An additional injection of cisplatin during the recovery period after a prior injury, when proximal tubule epithelia are actively proliferating, induced substantial tubular injury by inducing more severe DNA damage than that induced by a single injection. Lineage tracing analysis of proximal tubular epithelia demonstrated that the tubular epithelia that underwent multiple rounds of cell division after multiple injections of cisplatin existed at the chronic phase, and these populations often expressed vcam1 + , suggesting the induction of proinflammatory failed-repair tubular epithelia. Our study revealed that as cisplatin exerts cytotoxic effects on actively proliferating cells, additional cisplatin injections before the completion of tubular repair exacerbates kidney injury through cumulative DNA damage. Appropriate both the setting of dosage and dosing intervals, with careful monitoring, are essential to prevent nephrotoxicity of repeated cisplatin treatment in cancer patients.