While many of the classic open surgical repairs are still used to repair the ascending aorta, management of the aortic arch has become more complex via implementation of newer open surgical and endovascular techniques. Furthermore, techniques are often combined in novel repairs or to allow extended anatomic cover-age. As such, a framework that rests on understanding the expected postoperative appearance is necessary for the diagnostic radiologist to best interpret CT studies in these patients. After reviewing the imaging appearances of the common components used in proximal aortic repair, the authors present a structured approach that focuses on the key relevant questions that diagnostic radiologists should consider when interpreting CT studies in these patients. For repair of the ascending aorta, this includes determining whether the aortic valve has been repaired, whether the sinuses of Valsalva have been repaired, and how the coronary arteries were managed, when necessary. In repairs that involve the aortic arch, the relevant considerations relate to management of the arch vessels and the distal extent of the repair. In focusing on these questions, the diagnostic radiologist will be able to identify and describe the vast majority of repairs. Understanding these questions will also facilitate improved understanding of novel repairs, which often use these basic building blocks. Finally, complications—which typically involve infection, noninfectious repair breakdown, hemorrhage, problems with endo-grafts, or disease of the remaining adjacent aorta—will be identifi-able as deviations from the expected postoperative appearance. Online supplemental material is available for this article.