“Xanthogranulomatous epithelial tumor” (XGET) and “keratin-positive giant cell-rich soft tissue tumor” (KPGCT), two recently described mesenchymal neoplasms, likely represent different aspects of a single entity. Both tumors are composed of only a small minority of tumor cells surrounded by large numbers of non-neoplastic inflammatory cells and histiocytes, suggesting production of a paracrine factor with resulting “landscape effect,” as seen in tenosynovial giant cell tumor. Recent evidence suggests that the paracrine factor in XGET/KPGCT may be CSF1, as in tenosynovial giant cell tumor. We hypothesized that CSF1 is overexpressed in XGET/KPGCT. To test our hypothesis, we performed quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) for CSF1 expression and CSF1 RNAscope chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) on 6 cases of XGET/KPGCT. All cases were positive with CSF1 CISH and showed increased expression of CSF1 by qPCR. Our findings provide additional evidence that the CSF1/CSF1R pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of XGET/KPGCT. These findings suggest a possible role for CSF1R inhibition in the treatment of unresectable or metastatic XGET/KPGCT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-4
Number of pages4
JournalHuman Pathology
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • CSF1
  • Giant cell tumor
  • Keratin-positive giant cell-rich tumor
  • RNAscope CISH
  • Xanthogranulomatous epithelial tumor


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