How long-lived memories withstand molecular turnover is a fundamental question. Aggregates of a prion-like RNA-binding protein, cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB) protein, is a putative substrate of long-lasting memories. We isolated aggregated Drosophila CPEB, Orb2, from adult heads and determined its activity and atomic structure, at 2.6-angstrom resolution, using cryo-electron microscopy. Orb2 formed ∼75-nanometer-long threefold-symmetric amyloid filaments. Filament formation transformed Orb2 from a translation repressor to an activator and "seed" for further translationally active aggregation. The 31-amino acid protofilament core adopted a cross-b unit with a single hydrophilic hairpin stabilized through interdigitated glutamine packing. Unlike the hydrophobic core of pathogenic amyloids, the hydrophilic core of Orb2 filaments suggests how some neuronal amyloids could be a stable yet regulatable substrate ofmemory.