The inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) induces both cyclooxygenase (COX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with increases in the release of prostaglandin (PG) and nitric oxide (NO) by mesangial cells. Recently, activation of the COX enzyme by NO has been described. However, the effects of COX products (PGs) on the NO pathway have not been fully clarified. Thus we determined the effect of COX inhibition and exogenous PGs on NO production and NOS induction in rat mesangial cells. A COX inhibitior, indomethacin, enhanced IL-1β-induced steady-state level of the inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA and nitrite production. The effect of indomethacin was dose dependently reversed by the replacement of endogenous PGE2 with exogenous PGE2, which is the predominant product of the COX pathway in rat mesangial cells. In contrast to PGE2, a stable analog of PGI2, carba prostacyclin, enhanced IL-1β-induced iNOS mRNA levels and nitrite production. Forskolin, an activator of the adenylate cyclase, mimicked the effect of carba prostacyclin but not PGE2. These data suggest that (i) endogenous PGE2 downregulates iNOS induction, (ii) this inhibitory effect of PGE2 on iNOS induction is not mediated by activation of adenylate cyclase, and (iii) exogenous PGI2 stimulates COX induction possibly by activation of adenylate cyclase.
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Dec 6 1994|