The 2023 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) featured new and impactful findings about neuropsychiatric complications in people with HIV and other infections. Reports included new evidence of (a) the importance of myeloid cells in the pathogenesis of HIV disease in the central nervous system, including as an HIV reservoir; (b) eukaryotic and prokaryotic viruses in cerebrospinal fluid during suppressive antiretroviral therapy; (c) the influence of sex on pathogenesis, including in novel neuropsychiatric biotypes identified by machine learning and other methods; (d) premature aging in people with HIV, including the brain-age gap observed on magnetic resonance imaging; (e) cellular and soluble biomarkers of neuropsychiatric complications in people with HIV; and (f) the neurotoxicity of certain antiretroviral drugs. This review summarizes these and other new findings and highlights new research directions for the neuro-HIV field.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTopics in antiviral medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2023


  • CROI 2023
  • CSF
  • HIV
  • brain
  • cognition
  • comorbidities
  • depression
  • neuroimaging
  • neurologic complications


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