Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the major cause of epidemic, nonbacterial gastroenteritis in the world. The short course of HuNoV-induced symptoms has implicated innate immunity in control of norovirus (NoV) infection. Studies using murine norovirus(MNV) confirm the importance of innate immune responses during NoV infection. Type I alpha and beta interferons(IFN-α/β) limit HuNoV replicon function, restrict MNV replication in cultured cells, and control MNV replication in vivo.Therefore, the cell types and transcription factors involved in antiviral immune responses and IFN-α/β-mediated control of NoV infection are important to define. We used mice with floxed alleles of the IFNAR1 chain of the IFN-α/β receptor to identify cells expressing lysozymeMor CD11c as cells that respond to IFN-α/β to restrict MNV replication in vivo. Furthermore, we show that the transcription factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 work in concert to initiate unique and overlapping antiviral responses to restrict MNV replication in vivo. IRF-3 and IRF-7 restrict MNV replication in both cultured macrophages and dendritic cells, are required for induction of IFN-α/β in macrophages but not dendritic cells, and are dispensable for the antiviral effects of IFN-α/β that block MNV replication. These studies suggest that expression of the IFN-α/β receptor on macrophages/neutrophils and dendritic cells, as well as of IRF-3 and IRF-7, is critical for innate immune responses to NoV infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13515-13523
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of virology
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 2012


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