The resolution improvements of time reversal methods through exploiting nonhomogeneous media have attracted much interest recently with broad applications, including underwater acoustics, radar, detection of defects in metals, communications, and destruction of kidney stones. In this paper, we analyze the effect of inhomogeneity generated by multiple scattering among point scatterers under a multistatic sensing setup. We derive the Cramér-Rao bounds (CRBs) on parameters of the scatterers and compare the CRBs for multiple scattering using the Foldy-Lax model with the reference case without multiple scattering using the Born approximation. We find that multiple scattering could significantly improve the estimation performance of the system and higher order scattering components actually contain much richer information about the scatterers. For the case where multiple scattering is not possible, e.g., where only a single target scatterer exists in the illuminated scenario, we propose the use of artificial scatterers which could effectively improve the estimation performance of the target despite a decrease in the degrees of freedom of the estimation problem due to the introduced unknown parameters of the artificial scatterers. Numerical examples demonstrate the advantages of the artificial scatterers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2840-2850
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Issue number6 II
StatePublished - Jun 2007


  • Artificial scatterer
  • Born approximation
  • Cramér-Rao bound (CRB)
  • Foldy-Lax model
  • Inhomogeneity
  • Multiple scattering
  • Multistatic


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