Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation was designed and introduced by Drs. Yves Cotrel and Jean Dubousset. Introduction in the United States (1984) was by Drs. Kenton Leatherman, Richard Holt, and John Johnson of Louisville, Kentucky, and Dr. Harry Shufflebarger of Miami, Florida. It is a form of bilateral segmental fixation relying on the use of multiple hooks that can be used with selective lordosing and kyphosing forces and at times providing derotation by rotation of the pre-bent rod according to the flexibility of the curve. It has an application to virtually all forms of spinal deformity surgery, and its applications and acceptance are rapidly evolving.