During vertebrate gastrulation, convergence and extension (C&E) movements narrow and lengthen the embryonic tissues, respectively. In zebrafish, regional differences of C&E movements have been observed; however, the underlying cell behaviors are poorly understood. Using time-lapse analyses and computational modeling, we demonstrate that C&E of the medial presomitic mesoderm is achieved by cooperation of planar and radial cell intercalations. Radial intercalations preferentially separate anterior and posterior neighbors to promote extension. In knypek;trilobite noncanonical Wnt mutants, the frequencies of cell intercalations are altered and the anteroposterior bias of radial intercalations is lost. This provides evidence for noncanonical Wnt signaling polarizing cell movements between different mesodermal cell layers. We further show using fluorescent fusion proteins that during dorsal mesoderm C&E, the noncanonical Wnt component Prickle localizes at the anterior cell edge, whereas Dishevelled is enriched posteriorly. Asymmetrical localization of Prickle and Dishevelled to the opposite cell edges in zebrafish gastrula parallels their distribution in fly, and suggests that noncanonical Wnt signaling defines distinct anterior and posterior cell properties to bias cell intercalations.