Objective: This study aims to evaluate the performance of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) trained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) latency data in the classification of patients with pediatric epilepsy from healthy controls. Methods: Preoperative rfMRI and anatomic magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 63 pediatric patients with refractory epilepsy and 259 pediatric healthy controls. Latency maps of the temporal difference between rfMRI and the global mean signal were calculated using voxel-wise cross-covariance. Healthy control and epilepsy latency z score maps were pseudorandomized and partitioned into training data (60%), validation data (20%), and test data (20%). Healthy control individuals and patients with epilepsy were labeled as negative and positive, respectively. CNN models were then trained with the designated training data. Model hyperparameters were evaluated with a grid-search method. The model with the highest sensitivity was evaluated using unseen test data. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, F1 score, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were used to evaluate the ability of the model to classify epilepsy in the test data set. Results: The model with the highest validation sensitivity correctly classified 74% of unseen test patients with 85% sensitivity, 71% specificity, F1 score of 0.56, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.86. Conclusions: Using rfMRI latency data, we trained a CNN model to classify patients with pediatric epilepsy from healthy controls with good performance. CNN could serve as an adjunct in the diagnosis of pediatric epilepsy. Identification of pediatric epilepsy earlier in the disease course could decrease time to referral to specialized epilepsy centers and thus improve prognosis in this population.
- Convolutional neural networks
- Machine learning
- Pediatric epilepsy
- Pediatric refractory epilepsy
- Resting-state functional MRI
- Temporal latency