Conventional chemotherapies remain the mainstay of treatment for many malignancies. Kidney complications of these therapies are not infrequent and may have serious implications for future kidney function, cancer treatment options, eligibility for clinical trials, and overall survival. Kidney adverse effects may include acute kidney injury (via tubular injury, tubulointerstitial nephritis, glomerular disease and thrombotic microangiopathy), long-term kidney function loss and CKD, and electrolyte disturbances. In this review, we summarize the kidney complications of conventional forms of chemotherapy and, where possible, provide estimates of incidence, and identify risk factors and strategies for kidney risk mitigation. In addition, we provide recommendations regarding kidney dose modifications, recognizing that these adjustments may be limited by available supporting pharmacokinetic and clinical outcomes data. We discuss management strategies for kidney adverse effects associated with these therapies with drug-specific recommendations. We focus on frequently used anticancer agents with established kidney complications, including platinum-based chemotherapies (cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin), cyclophosphamide, gemcitabine, ifosfamide, methotrexate and pemetrexed, among others.
- Acute kidney injury
- Electrolyte disturbance