An important advance using in vitro EC tube morphogenesis and maturation models has been the development of systems using serum-free defined media. Using this approach, the growth factors and cytokines which are actually necessary for these events can be determined. The first model developed by our laboratory was such a system where we showed that phorbol ester was needed in order to promote survival and tube morphogenesis in 3D collagen matrices. Recently, we have developed a new system in which the hematopoietic stem cell cytokines, stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin-3 (IL-3), and stromal derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) were added in conjunction with FGF-2 to promote human EC tube morphogenesis in 3D collagen matrices under serum-free defined conditions. This new model using SCF, IL-3, SDF-1α, and FGF-2 also works well following the addition of pericytes where EC tube formation occurs, pericytes are recruited to the tubes, and vascular basement membrane matrix assembly occurs following EC-pericyte interactions. In this chapter, we describe several in vitro assay models that we routinely utilize to investigate the molecular requirements that are critical to EC tube formation and maturation events in 3D extracellular matrix environments.