The most important discovery in the field is that the Arp2/3 complex nucleates assembly of actin filaments with free barbed ends. Arp2/3 also binds the sides of actin filaments to create a branched network. Arp2/3's nucleation activity is stimulated by WASP family proteins, some of which mediate signaling from small G-proteins. Listeria movement caused by actin polymerization can be reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins: Arp2/3 complex, capping protein, actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin, and actin. actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin increases the rate at which actin subunits leave pointed ends, and capping protein caps barbed ends.