The human brain is organized into specialized functional brain networks. Some networks are dedicated to early sensory processing, and others to generating motor outputs. Yet, the bulk of the human brain's functional networks is actually dedicated to control processes. The two control networks most important for the impressive repertoire of control-related behaviors that humans are able to instantiate and maintain are the frontoparietal and cinguloopercular networks. We provide evidence that these two control networks largely contribute to nonoverlapping domains of control. These networks largely have been studied using fMRI, which is sensitive only to infraslow activity. Complementary electrophysiological techniques have provided evidence that these networks manifest at substantially faster frequencies (delta–alpha band), supporting their role in coordination of whole-brain functional network activity. Both the frontoparietal and cinguloopercular networks demonstrate protracted development, supporting increases in control-related performance. Recent studies from our lab indicate these control networks exhibit measurable individual specificity, highlighting the importance of individualized paradigms in neuroimaging studies to advance our understanding of typical and atypical control network function throughout the life span.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Clinical Neurology
PublisherElsevier B.V.
Number of pages15
StatePublished - 2019

Publication series

NameHandbook of Clinical Neurology
ISSN (Print)0072-9752
ISSN (Electronic)2212-4152


  • Cinguloopercular network
  • Control
  • Development
  • Frontoparietal network
  • Functional networks
  • Resting state


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