Contrast-enhanced US for the interventional radiologist: Current and emerging applications

Christopher D. Malone, David T. Fetzer, Wayne L. Monsky, Malak Itani, Vincent M. Mellnick, Philip A. Velez, William D. Middleton, Michalakis A. Averkiou, Raja S. Ramaswamy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


US is a powerful and nearly ubiquitous tool in the practice of interventional radiology. Use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) has gained traction in diagnostic imaging given the recent approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of microbubble contrast agents for use in the liver, such as sulfur hexafluoride lipid–type A microspheres. Adoption of CEUS by interventional radiologists can enhance not only procedure guidance but also preprocedure patient evaluation and assessment of treatment response across a wide spectrum of oncologic, vascular, and nonvascular procedures. In addition, the unique physical properties of microbubble contrast agents make them amenable as therapeutic vehicles in themselves, which can lay a foundation for future therapeutic innovations in the field in drug delivery, thrombolysis, and vascular flow augmentation. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to and overview of CEUS aimed at the interventional radiologist, highlighting its role before, during, and after frequently practiced oncologic and vascular interventions such as biopsy, ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, detection and control of hemorrhage, evaluation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS), detection of aortic endograft endoleak, thrombus detection and evaluation, evaluation of vascular malformations, lymphangiography, and percutaneous drain placement. Basic physical principles of CEUS, injection and scanning protocols, and logistics for practice implementation are also discussed. Early adoption of CEUS by the interventional radiology community will ensure rapid innovation of the field and development of future novel procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)562-588
Number of pages27
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020


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