Contemporary seasonal influenza A (H1N1) virus infection primes for a more robust response to split inactivated pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus vaccination in ferrets

Ali H. Ellebedy, Thomas P. Fabrizio, Ghazi Kayali, Thomas H. Oguin, Scott A. Brown, Jerold Rehg, Paul G. Thomas, Richard J. Webby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

Human influenza pandemics occur when influenza viruses to which the population has little or no immunity emerge and acquire the ability to achieve human-to-human transmission. In April 2009, cases of a novel H1N1 influenza virus in children in the southwestern United States were reported. It was retrospectively shown that these cases represented the spread of this virus from an ongoing outbreak in Mexico. The emergence of the pandemic led to a number of national vaccination programs. Surprisingly, early human clinical trial data have shown that a single dose of nonadjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent inactivated vaccine (pMIV) has led to a seroprotective response in a majority of individuals, despite earlier studies showing a lack of cross-reactivity between seasonal and pandemic H1N1 viruses. Here we show that previous exposure to a contemporary seasonal H1N1 influenza virus and to a lesser degree a seasonal influenza virus trivalent inactivated vaccine is able to prime for a higher antibody response after a subsequent dose of pMIV in ferrets. The more protective response was partially dependent on the presence of CD8+ cells. Two doses of pMIV were also able to induce a detectable antibody response that provided protection from subsequent challenge. These data show that previous infection with seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses likely explains the requirement for only a single dose of pMIV in adults and that vaccination campaigns with the current pandemic influenza vaccines should reduce viral burden and disease severity in humans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1998-2006
Number of pages9
JournalClinical and Vaccine Immunology
Volume17
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2010
Externally publishedYes

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