Considerations in Preparative Regimen Selection to Minimize Rejection in Pediatric Hematopoietic Transplantation in Non-Malignant Diseases

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Abstract

The variables that influence the selection of a preparative regimen for a pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant procedure encompasses many issues. When one considers this procedure for non-malignant diseases, components in a preparative regimen that were historically developed to reduce malignant tumor burden may be unnecessary. The primary goal of the procedure in this instance becomes engraftment with the establishment of normal hematopoiesis and a normal immune system. Overcoming rejection becomes the primary priority, but pursuit of this goal cannot neglect organ toxicity, or post-transplant morbidity such as graft-versus-host disease or life threatening infections. With the improvements in supportive care, newborn screening techniques for early disease detection, and the expansion of viable donor sources, we have reached a stage where hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can be considered for virtually any patient with a hematopoietic based disease. Advancing preparative regiments that minimize rejection and transplant related toxicity will thus dictate to what extent this medical technology is fully utilized. This mini-review will provide an overview of the origins of conditioning regimens for transplantation and how agents and techniques have evolved to make hematopoietic stem cell transplantation a viable option for children with non-malignant diseases of the hematopoietic system. We will summarize the current state of this facet of the transplant procedure and describe the considerations that come into play in selecting a particular preparative regimen. Decisions within this realm must tailor the treatment to the primary disease condition to ideally achieve an optimal outcome. Finally, we will project forward where advances are needed to overcome the persistent engraftment obstacles that currently limit the utilization of transplantation for haematopoietically based diseases in children.

Original languageEnglish
Article number567423
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Volume11
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 19 2020

Keywords

  • childhood and adolescence
  • engrafted survival outcomes
  • hematopoeific stem cells
  • preparative
  • transplantation

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