Transcriptional regulation, a primary mechanism for controlling the development of multicellular organisms, is carried out by transcription factors (TFs) that recognize and bind to their cognate binding sites. In Caenorhabditis elegans, our knowledge of which genes are regulated by which TFs, through binding to specific sites, is still very limited. To expand our knowledge about the C. elegans regulatory network, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the C. elegans, Caenorhabditis briggsae, and Caenorhabditis remanei genomes to identify regulatory elements that are conserved in all genomes. Our analysis identified 4959 elements that are significantly conserved across the genomes and that each occur multiple times within each genome, both hallmarks of functional regulatory sites. Our motifs show significant matches to known core promoter elements, TF binding sites, splice sites, and poly-A signals as well as many putative regulatory sites. Many of the motifs are significantly correlated with various types of experimental data, including gene expression patterns, tissue-specific expression patterns, and binding site location analysis as well as enrichment in specific functional classes of genes. Many can also be significantly associated with specific TFs. Combinations of motif occurrences allow us to predict the location of cisregulatory modules and we show that many of them significantly overlap experimentally determined enhancers. We provide access to the predicted binding sites, their associated motifs, and the predicted cis-regulatory modules across the whole genome through a web-accessible database and as tracks for genome browsers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469-481
Number of pages13
JournalG3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2012


  • Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Cis-regulatory element
  • Cis-regulatory module
  • Transcription factor
  • Transcriptional regulation


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