Recommendation: Forefoot varus is a physical and radiographic examination finding associated with the Progressive Collapsing Foot Deformity (PCFD). Varus position of the forefoot relative to the hindfoot is caused by medial midfoot collapse with apex plantar angulation of the medial column. Some surgeons use the term forefoot supination to describe this same deformity (see Introduction section with nomenclature). Correction of this deformity is important to restore the weightbearing tripod of the foot and help resist a recurrence of foot collapse. When the forefoot varus deformity is isolated to the medial metatarsal and medial cuneiform, correction is indicated with an opening wedge medial cuneiform (Cotton) osteotomy, typically with interposition of an allograft bone wedge from 5 to 11 mm in width at the base. When the forefoot varus is global, involving varus angulation of the entire forefoot and midfoot relative to the hindfoot, other procedures are needed to adequately correct the deformity. Level of Evidence: Level V, consensus, expert opinion.
- Cotton osteotomy
- cuneiform osteotomy
- forefoot varus
- progressive collapsing foot deformity