Consensus guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiencies

Thomas Opladen, Eduardo López-Laso, Elisenda Cortès-Saladelafont, Toni S. Pearson, H. Serap Sivri, Yilmaz Yildiz, Birgit Assmann, Manju A. Kurian, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Simon Heales, Simon Pope, Francesco Porta, Angeles García-Cazorla, Tomáš Honzík, Roser Pons, Luc Regal, Helly Goez, Rafael Artuch, Georg F. Hoffmann, Gabriella HorvathBeat Thöny, Sabine Scholl-Bürgi, Alberto Burlina, Marcel M. Verbeek, Mario Mastrangelo, Jennifer Friedman, Tessa Wassenberg, Kathrin Jeltsch, Jan Kulhánek, Oya Kuseyri Hübschmann

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Background: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiencies comprise a group of six rare neurometabolic disorders characterized by insufficient synthesis of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin due to a disturbance of BH4 biosynthesis or recycling. Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) is the first diagnostic hallmark for most BH4 deficiencies, apart from autosomal dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I deficiency and sepiapterin reductase deficiency. Early supplementation of neurotransmitter precursors and where appropriate, treatment of HPA results in significant improvement of motor and cognitive function. Management approaches differ across the world and therefore these guidelines have been developed aiming to harmonize and optimize patient care. Representatives of the International Working Group on Neurotransmitter related Disorders (iNTD) developed the guidelines according to the SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) methodology by evaluating all available evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BH4 deficiencies. Conclusion: Although the total body of evidence in the literature was mainly rated as low or very low, these consensus guidelines will help to harmonize clinical practice and to standardize and improve care for BH4 deficient patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number126
JournalOrphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 26 2020


  • 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase deficiency
  • BH
  • Consensus guidelines
  • Dihydropteridine reductase deficiency
  • Guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase deficiency
  • Hyperphenylalaninemia
  • Neurotransmitter
  • SIGN
  • Sepiapterin reductase deficiency, pterin-4-alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase deficiency
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency
  • iNTD


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