Consensus-based technical recommendations for clinical translation of renal ASL MRI

Fabio Nery, Charlotte E. Buchanan, Anita A. Harteveld, Aghogho Odudu, Octavia Bane, Eleanor F. Cox, Katja Derlin, H. Michael Gach, Xavier Golay, Marcel Gutberlet, Christoffer Laustsen, Alexandra Ljimani, Ananth J. Madhuranthakam, Ivan Pedrosa, Pottumarthi V. Prasad, Philip M. Robson, Kanishka Sharma, Steven Sourbron, Manuel Taso, David L. ThomasDanny J.J. Wang, Jeff L. Zhang, David C. Alsop, Sean B. Fain, Susan T. Francis, María A. Fernández-Seara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Scopus citations


Objectives: This study aimed at developing technical recommendations for the acquisition, processing and analysis of renal ASL data in the human kidney at 1.5 T and 3 T field strengths that can promote standardization of renal perfusion measurements and facilitate the comparability of results across scanners and in multi-centre clinical studies. Methods: An international panel of 23 renal ASL experts followed a modified Delphi process, including on-line surveys and two in-person meetings, to formulate a series of consensus statements regarding patient preparation, hardware, acquisition protocol, analysis steps and data reporting. Results: Fifty-nine statements achieved consensus, while agreement could not be reached on two statements related to patient preparation. As a default protocol, the panel recommends pseudo-continuous (PCASL) or flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) labelling with a single-slice spin-echo EPI readout with background suppression and a simple but robust quantification model. Discussion: This approach is considered robust and reproducible and can provide renal perfusion images of adequate quality and SNR for most applications. If extended kidney coverage is desirable, a 2D multislice readout is recommended. These recommendations are based on current available evidence and expert opinion. Nonetheless they are expected to be updated as more data become available, since the renal ASL literature is rapidly expanding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-161
Number of pages21
JournalMagnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020


  • Arterial spin labelling
  • Kidney
  • MRI
  • Perfusion
  • Renal blood flow


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