Purpose: To measure the incidence and evaluate treatment of pyogenic granulomas after strabismus surgery. Design: Retrospective observational case series. Participants: Four hundred seventy-nine strabismus surgical patients. Methods: Incidence was determined by review of 472 consecutive patients who underwent strabismus surgery from January 6, 1999 to December 29, 2000. Outcomes were evaluated in 7 additional patients who underwent surgical excision of pyogenic granulomas over a 6-year period from July 5, 1995 to September 19, 2001 (exclusive of the years 1999-2000). Main Outcome Measure: Development and resolution of pyogenic granulomas. Results: Pyogenic granulomas developed in 10 of 472 patients (2.1%). None of these patients had more than 1 pyogenic granuloma, despite having had surgery before or after the event. Treatment of pyogenic granulomas with topical corticosteroids was successful in 90% of patients. Surgical excision was successful in the group of 7 additional patients who did not respond to corticosteroids. Conclusions: Conjunctival pyogenic granulomas are a potential complication of strabismus surgery. Treatment with topical steroids is an effective initial treatment for most patients with pyogenic granulomas. Surgical excision is effective in patients who do not improve with topical medication. Patients with multiple surgeries do not seem to be at increased risk for pyogenic granulomas, and the occurrence of a pyogenic granuloma does not seem to increase the risk of developing pyogenic granulomas in future surgeries.