Mammalian small intestinal lipid absorption requires the coordinated interactions of apolipoprotein B (apoB) and the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp). The observation that apoB100 displays greater dependence on Mttp availability than does apoB48 prompted us to examine the phenotype of Mttp deletion in an Apobec-1-/- background (i.e. apoB100 Mttp-IKO). 20% apoB100 Mttp-IKO mice died on a chow diet, and >90% died following high fat feeding (versus 0 and 11% apoB48 Mttp-IKO mice, respectively). Intestinal adaptation occurred in apoB48 Mttp-IKO mice in response to high fat feeding, evidenced by increased bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and villus lengthening, changes that did not occur in apoB100 Mttp-IKO mice. There was an exaggerated unfolded protein response (UPR), which became more pronounced in apoB100 Mttp-IKO mice. To examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the UPR in the lipotoxic effects of Mttp deletion, we administered tauroursodeoxycholate to apoB100 Mttp-IKO mice upon initiation of high fat feeding. Tauroursodeoxycholate administration abrogated the UPR but produced an unexpected acceleration in the onset of lethality in apoB100 Mttp-IKO mice. The findings demonstrate that there is activation of the UPR with lethal lipotoxicity in conditional intestinal apoB100 Mttp-IKO mice. Together the data provide the first plausible biological evidence for a survival advantage for mammalian intestinal apoB mRNA editing.