Background: In patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation is associated with heart failure and increased late mortality. However, the role of surgical ablation in these patients is not well defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the concomitant Cox-Maze IV procedure in patients undergoing septal myectomy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Methods: Between 2005 and 2019, 347 patients who underwent septal myectomy at a single institution (Washington University School of Medicine, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St Louis, MO) were retrospectively reviewed. For patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation who underwent a concomitant Cox-Maze IV procedure, freedom from atrial tachyarrhythmias (ATAs) on or off antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) was evaluated annually. Predictors of ATA recurrence were identified using Fine-Gray regression, with death as a competing risk. Results: A total of 42 patients underwent concomitant septal myectomy and Cox-Maze IV procedures. The majority of patients, 69% (29 of 42), had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with a 2.5-year median duration. Operative mortality was 7% (3 of 42). New York Heart Association functional class was reduced after surgery (P < .01). Rates of freedom from recurrent ATAs at 1- and 5-year intervals were 93% (27 of 29) and 100% (14 of 14), respectively. Rates of freedom from ATAs and AADs were 83% (24 of 29) and 100% (14 of 14) at the same time points, respectively. Increased left atrial diameter predicted first ATA recurrence (P < .01). Cerebrovascular accident risk was lower in patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent concomitant Cox-Maze IV and septal myectomy relative to myectomy only (P = .02). Conclusions: Late freedom from ATAs on or off AADs was excellent after Cox-Maze IV and septal myectomy. Although there was a higher than expected rate of perioperative complications, the study results suggest that concomitant surgical ablation should be considered in selected patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation.