Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). To develop interventions to prevent recurrent infections, household attributes and individual practices influencing S. aureus colonization must be discerned. Methods: Households of healthy children with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) SSTI (n = 150; 671 participants) were interviewed regarding health history, activities, and hygiene practices. S. aureus colonization was assessed in household members, and recovered isolates were typed by repetitive sequence-based PCR. Results: The number of unique strain types in a household (median 1, range 0–7) correlated with the number of colonized individuals (p < 0.001). The MRSA infecting strain type colonized a household member in 57% of 91 households with an available infecting strain, and was the most common strain type recovered in 45% of these households. In multivariable models, household MRSA colonization burden (p < 0.001), sharing a bedroom with MRSA-colonized individuals (p = 0.03), renting dwelling (p = 0.048), and warmer seasons (p = 0.02) were associated with increased MRSA colonization. Increasing age (p = 0.02), bathing at least daily (p = 0.01), and antibacterial soap use (p = 0.03) correlated with reduced MRSA colonization. Conclusions: This study identified practices that correlate with MRSA colonization, which will inform physician counseling and multifaceted interventions among MRSA-affected households to mitigate MRSA in the community.