Time-restricted eating (TRE) is a dietary intervention that limits food consumption to a specific time window each day. The effect of TRE on body weight and physiological functions has been extensively studied in rodent models, which have shown considerable therapeutic effects of TRE and important interactions among time of eating, circadian biology, and metabolic homeostasis. In contrast, it is difficult to make firm conclusions regarding the effect of TRE in people because of the heterogeneity in results, TRE regimens, and study populations. In this review, we 1) provide a background of the history of meal consumption in people and the normal physiology of eating and fasting; 2) discuss the interaction between circadian molecular metabolism and TRE; 3) integrate the results of preclinical and clinical studies that evaluated the effects of TRE on body weight and physiological functions; 4) summarize other time-related dietary interventions that have been studied in people; and 4) identify current gaps in knowledge and provide a framework for future research directions.
- intermittent fasting
- time-restricted eating