Complex and rapid-cycling in bipolar children and adolescents: a preliminary study

Barbara Geller, Kai Sun, Betsy Zimerman, Joan Luby, Jeanne Frazier, Marlene Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

240 Scopus citations


26 subjects aged 7-18 years were studied. Diagnoses of bipolar disorders were established using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present Episode Version-1986 modified for DSM-III-R criteria and for rating the number and duration of manic and hypomanic episodes. Complex cycling patterns were observed. These included numerous brief episodes suggesting continuous rapid-cycling in 80.8% of cases. Mean age of onset was early (8.5 ± 4.4 years). Psychotic phenomena, suicidality, hyperactivity and 'mixed mania' were highly prevalent. Data in this report provide support for complex and rapid-cycling patterns in childhood onset bipolar disorder.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)259-268
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of affective disorders
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 18 1995


  • Adolescent
  • Bipolar affective disorder
  • Child
  • Hyperactivity
  • Mixed mania
  • Rapid-cycling

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