Comparison of treatment strategies for neonates with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia

Jeffery J. Meadows, Holly Bauser-Heaton, Christopher J. Petit, Bryan H. Goldstein, Athar M. Qureshi, Courtney E. McCracken, Michael S. Kelleman, George T. Nicholson, Mark A. Law, Jeffrey D. Zampi, Shabana Shahanavaz, Paul J. Chai, Jennifer C. Romano, Sarosh P. Batlivala, Shiraz A. Maskatia, Ivor B. Asztalos, Lindsay Eilers, Alicia M. Kamsheh, Steven J. Healan, Justin D. SmithR. Allen Ligon, Andrew Dailey-Schwartz, Joelle A. Pettus, Amy L. Pajk, Andrew C. Glatz, Christopher E. Mascio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: Neonates with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia (TOF/PA) but no major aorta-pulmonary collaterals are dependent on the arterial duct for pulmonary blood flow and require early intervention, either by primary (PR) or staged repair (SR) with initial palliation (IP) followed by complete repair (CR). The optimal approach has not been established. Methods: Neonates with TOF/PA who underwent PR or SR were retrospectively reviewed from the Congenital Cardiac Research Collaborative. Outcomes were compared between PR and SR (IP + CR) strategies. Propensity scoring was used to adjust for baseline differences. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included complications, length of stay, cardiopulmonary bypass and anesthesia times, reintervention (RI), and pulmonary artery (PA) growth. Results: Of 282 neonates, 106 underwent PR and 176 underwent SR (IP: 144 surgical, 32 transcatheter). Patients who underwent SR were more likely to have DiGeorge syndrome and greater rates of mechanical ventilation before the initial intervention. Mortality was not significantly different. Duration of mechanical ventilation, inotrope use, and complication rates were similar. Cumulative length of stay, cardiopulmonary bypass, and anesthesia times favored PR (P ≤.001). Early RI was more common in patients who underwent SR (rate ratio, 1.42; P =.003) but was similar after CR (P =.837). Conduit size at the time of CR was larger with SR. Right PA growth was greater with PR. Conclusions: In neonates with TOF/PA, SR is more common in greater-risk patients. Accounting for this, SR and PR strategies have similar mortality. Perioperative morbidities, RI, and right PA growth generally favor PR, whereas SR allows for larger initial conduit implantation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)916-925.e6
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • congenital heart disease
  • pulmonary atresia
  • staged repair
  • tetralogy of Fallot


Dive into the research topics of 'Comparison of treatment strategies for neonates with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this