Study Objectives: Multiple methods for monitoring sleep-wake activity have identified sleep disturbances as risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD). In order to identify the level of agreement between different methods, we compared sleep parameters derived from single-channel EEG (scEEG), actigraphy, and sleep diaries in cognitively normal and mildly impaired older adults. Methods: Two hundred ninety-three participants were monitored at home for up to six nights with scEEG, actigraphy, and sleep diaries. Total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), sleep onset latency (SOL), and wake after sleep onset (WASO) were calculated using each of these methods. In 109 of the 293 participants, the ratio of cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and amyloid-β-42 (Aβ42) was used as a biomarker for AD pathology. Results: Agreement was highest for TST across instruments, especially in cognitively normal older adults. Overall, scEEG and actigraphy appeared to have greater agreement for multiple sleep parameters than for scEEG and diary or actigraphy and diary. Levels of agreement between scEEG and actigraphy overall decreased in mildly impaired participants and those with biomarker evidence of AD pathology, especially for measurements of TST. Conclusions: Caution should be exercised when comparing scEEG and actigraphy in individuals with mild cognitive impairment or with AD pathology. Sleep diaries may capture different aspects of sleep compared to scEEG and actigraphy. Additional studies comparing different methods of measuring sleep-wake activity in older adults are necessary to allow for comparison between studies using different methods.
- home testing
- neurodegenerative disorders