Mice with deletion of genes for small heat shock proteins αA- and αB-crystallin (αA/αB-/-) develop cataracts. We used proteomic analysis to identify lens proteins that change in abundance after deletion of these α-crystallin genes. Wild-type (WT) and αA/αB-/- knockout (DKO) mice were compared using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis, and protein identifications were validated by Mascot proteomic software. The abundance of histones H2A, H4, and H2B fragment, and a low molecular weight β1-catenin increased 2-3-fold in postnatal day 2 lenses of DKO lenses compared with WT lenses. Additional major increases were observed in abundance of βB2-crystallin and vimentin in 30-day-old lenses of DKO animals compared with WT animals. Lenses of DKO mice were comprised of nine protein spots containing βB2-crystallin at 10-40-fold higher abundance and three protein spots containing vimentin at ≥2-fold higher abundance than in WT lenses. Gel permeation chromatography identified a unique 328 kDa protein in DKO lenses, containing β-crystallin, demonstrating aggregation of β-crystallin in the absence of α-crystallins. Together, these changes provide biochemical evidence for possible functions of specific cell adhesion proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and crystallins in lens opacities caused by the absence of the major chaperones, αA- and αB-crystallins.