OBJECTIVE To examine the comparative effectiveness of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4), and sulfonylureas on risk of kidney outcomes among people with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS U.S. veterans initiated on SGLT2i (n 5 18,544), GLP-1 (n 5 23,711), DPP-4 (n 5 39,399), or sulfonylureas (n 5 134,904) were followed for up to 3 years to evaluate the risk of the composite outcome of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline >50%, end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), or all-cause mortality. Risks were estimated using survival models adjusted for predefined covariates as well as covariates identified by a high-dimensional variable selection algorithm through application of generalized propensity scores. RESULTS Compared with those treated with sulfonylureas, treatment with SGLT2i, GLP-1, and DPP-4 was associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio 0.68 [95% CI 0.63, 0.74], 0.72 [0.67, 0.77], and 0.90 [0.86, 0.95], respectively). While we did not observe a statistically significant difference in risk between the SGLT2i and GLP-1 arms (0.95 [0.87, 1.04]), both SGLT2i and GLP-1 had a lower risk of the composite outcome than DPP-4 (0.76 [0.70, 0.82] and 0.79 [0.74, 0.85], respectively). Analyses by eGFR category suggested that compared with the sulfonylurea arm, those in the SGLT2i and GLP-1 arms exhibited a lower risk of the composite outcome in all eGFR categories, including eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Compared with DPP-4, both SGLT2i and GLP-1 exhibited a reduced risk of the composite outcome in eGFR <90 to ‡60, <60 to ‡45, and <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 . CONCLUSIONS In type 2 diabetes, treatment with SGLT2i or GLP-1 compared with DPP-4 or sulfonylureas was associated with a lower risk of adverse kidney outcomes.