Background: Centrifugation is a popular processing method, with an unclear mechanism of action. Hypotheses include fat concentration, reduced inflammatory response by removal of blood, and concentration of adipose-derived stem cells. The authors performed multiple experiments to determine the role of centrifugation and compared it with a different processing method (mesh/ gauze technique). Methods: Lipoaspirate components were quantified after centrifugation at increasing speed to determine concentration efficacy. For comparison, the authors quantified the concentration efficacy of mesh/gauze. They also compared the number of adipose-derived stem cells isolated by either method. To determine the effects of each component, they compared fat alone to fat mixed with various spinoff components in a mouse model. They also compared centrifugation to mesh/gauze. Results: The adipocyte fraction remains constant above 5000 g, whereas 1200 g results in 91 percent concentrated fat. Mesh/gauze also results in 90 percent concentrated fat. The number of adipose-derived stem cells in 1 g of fat was 1603 ± 2020 and 1857 ± 1832 in the centrifuge and mesh/gauze groups, respectively (p = 0.86). Five "add-back" groups were created: fat plus oil, fat plus surgical tumescence, fat plus fresh tumescence, fat plus cell pellets and fresh tumescence, and fat plus cell pellets. The fat-only group had better retention than the groups mixed with tumescence, regardless of whether it was surgical, fresh, or had cell pellets. Oil did not affect grafts. Centrifugation at 1200 g was equivalent to mesh/gauze (0.73 ± 0.12 g and 0.72 ± 0.13 g, respectively). Conclusions: Centrifugation improves graft retention by concentration of the adipocyte fraction. The concentration efficacy of mesh/gauze is equivalent to centrifugation at 1200 g, with equivalent in vivo outcomes.